THE Quena it is an ancient tubular flute, native to South America, especially in use among the Ecuadorian, Chilean, Peruvian, Mexican, Bolivian and Northern Argentine Indians. Its origin is portrayed in existing paintings and drawings, made by people who inhabited, between 200 BC and 600 AD, the cities of Nazca and Chimu, in Peru; where the instrument has already been made from the bone of the llama; typical animal, its first specimens were made with condor bones, stone or clay, materials later replaced by bamboo and wood, its extension comprises the Pentatonic Scale (composed of five notes), used by the ancient Inca people. The name: “Quena”, appeared as a result of the modification of the word, in the Quechua language: “Kkénakkéna”, “Kjena” and “Khoanna”, when being translated into Spanish, is also known as Qina. The Incas had the habit of depositing flutes and wheat sticks, used in making straws, next to the dead, in their tombs, as the use of this instrument was related to fertility, life and resurrection rituals. The discovery of these sarcophagi established, for some time, the belief on the part of specialists and historians that they were deceased musicians, and it was later proved that such deposit was related to life amulets.
It is a simple, vertical flute, open at both ends; it has an oblique mouth and its device, located at the top, is formed by a "cut", in the shape of the letter "V", or Straight; that is, a simple notch called “Mosca” or “Chanfle, where the mouth of the performer is adjusted, in such a way that the breath produces the sound effect, that's why it is also known as Flauta de Mosca, in addition to other denominations that vary in function of the language and place where it is found. As for their measurements, they vary between 15 and 120 cm and the number of loudness holes, according to the type. The most common Quena, with six holes in the front, one in the back and tuned in G; it is used as a solo instrument. (CERQUEIRA FILHO, Ilton José de. History of the Flute)