The Quena is an ancient tubular flute, native to South America, especially in use among Ecuadorian, Chilean, Peruvian, Mexican, Bolivian and Northern Argentine Indians. Its origin is portrayed in existing paintings and drawings, made by people who inhabited, between 200 BC and 600 of our era, the cities of Nazca and Chimu, in Peru; where the instrument was once made from llama bone; typical animal, its first specimens were made with condor bones, stone or clay, materials later replaced by bamboo and wood, its extension comprises the Pentatonic Scale (composed of five notes), used by the ancient Inca people. The name: “ Quena ”, arose as a result of the modification of the word, in the Quechua language: “Kkénakkéna”, “Kjena” and “Khoanna”, when translated into Spanish, it is also known as Qina. The Incas had the custom of depositing flutes and wheat sticks, used in making straws, next to the dead, in their tombs, as the use of this instrument was related to fertility, life and resurrection rituals. The discovery of these sarcophagi established, for some time, the belief on the part of experts and historians that they were deceased musicians, and later it was proven that such deposit was related to life amulets.
It is a vertical flute, simple, open at both ends; it has an oblique mouthpiece and its device, located at the top, is formed by a “cut”, in the shape of the letter “V”, or Straight; that is, a simple notch called “Mosca” or “Chanfle, where the performer's mouth is adjusted, so that the breath produces the sound effect, which is why it is also known as Flute de Mosca, in addition to other names that vary depending on the of the language and place where it is found. As for their measurements, they vary between 15 and 120 cm, and the number of sound holes, according to the type. The Quena , with six holes in the front, one in the back and tuned in G; It is used as a solo instrument. (CERQUEIRA FILHO, Ilton José de. History of the Flute) The quena cho is a quena , with a lower sound, usually tuned in RE (D4) or DO (C4).
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